cleavages in elections and protests

programmatic mobilization in the two arenas

Ideological composition of protest in the three European regions. From Borbáth & Gessler 2020.
I am particularly interested in the formation and political mobilisation of cleavages. A comparison of the lines of conflict as mobilized in the electoral and protest arenas shows the extent to which they follow similar trends and are shaped by the underlying cleavage structure.

My research focuses on both cross-national and over time differences in cleavage formation and mobilisation.


  • Borbáth, E., & Hutter, S. (2022). Bridging Electoral and Nonelectoral Political Participation. In M. Giugni & M. Grasso (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Participation (pp. 451–470). Oxford University Press.
    Access online
  • Borbáth, E. (2021). Two faces of party system stability: Programmatic change and party replacement. Party Politics, 27(5), 996–1008.
    Open access online or replication material
  • Borbáth, E., & Gessler, T. (2020). Different worlds of contention? Protest in Northwestern, Southern and Eastern Europe. European Journal of Political Research, 59(4), 910–935.
    Open access online or replication material
  • Hutter, S., & Borbáth, E. (2019). Challenges from left and right: The long-term dynamics of protest and electoral politics in Western Europe. European Societies, 21(4), 487–512.
    Access online

Working papers

  • Borbáth, E., Hutter, S., & Leininger, A. Cleavage politics, polarisation, and participation in Western Europe.
  • Borbáth, E. Differentiation in Protest Politics: Participation by Political Insiders and Outsiders.
  • Höltmann G., Borbáth, E., & Hutter, S. Varieties of Union Protest Trade: Unions between Interest and Protest Politics.